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How to build your router


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Build Types

YaS☀️lR supports many builds and routing algorithms. Before building your router, you need to decide which type of technology you want to use to dim the voltage (Burst Mode or Phase Control). Here is a compatibility matrix for the main pieces of hardware depending on the router type you want to build.

Once you have picked up your build type, you can look at the Wiring Schema to know how to wire it and see the Compatible Hardware section to know what you need to buy.

Hardware Phase Control (*3) Burst Mode Nominal Load (*1) Wiring Schemas
Robodyn 24A
< 2000 W // TODO: add wiring schema
Robodyn 40A
< 3000 W // TODO: add wiring schema
Random SSR
+ ZCD Circuit
1/3 of SSR rated load (*2) // TODO: add wiring schema
Zero-Cross SSR
+ ZCD Circuit
1/3 of SSR rated load (*2) // TODO: add wiring schema

Hint: Remember that according to regulations about harmonic, the maximum power should be at around 750W. More than that, you are supposed to put in place filtering systems to reduce the harmonics. So if you want to build a router that is compliant with the regulations, any build type will be fine as long as you pay attention to the generated harmonic level.

Bypass: Whatever the solution you pick, you can always add an optional bypass relay to send the full power to the load instead of dimming it, free of harmonics. If no bypass relay is added, the dimmer will be used instead at 100% when pressing the bypass.

Dimmers: Solid State Relay or Robodyn ?

Here are some pros and cons of each phase control system:

Robodyn (TRIAC):

Solid State Relays:

Heat Sink:

In any case, do not forget to correctly dissipate the heat of your Triac / SSR using an appropriate heat sink. Robodyn heat sink is not enough and require some tweaking (like adding a flan or de-soldering the triac and heat sink and put the triac on a bigger heat sink).

It is best to take a vertical heat sink for heat dissipation. In case of the Robodyn 40A, you can install it vertically.

Relays: Solid State Relay or Electromagnetic Relay ?

Router output bypass relays:

Normal relays:

Also to consider:

Here are some links where to fine pros and cons of each relay type:

Compatible ESP32 Boards

The full list of ESP32 boards can be found here. Here are the boards we know are compatible and those we have tested.

Board Compatible Tested Ethernet Typical Name
esp32   ESP32 NodeMCU Dev Kit C
esp32s   ESP32S NodeMCU Dev Kit C
esp32c3     Espressif ESP32-C3-DevKitC-02
esp32s3   Espressif ESP32-S3-DevKitC-1-N8 (8 MB QD, No PSRAM)
d1_mini32     WEMOS D1 MINI ESP32
lolin32_lite     WEMOS LOLIN32 Lite
lolin_c3_mini     WEMOS LOLIN C3 Mini
lolin_s2_mini     WEMOS LOLIN S2 Mini
esp32_poe   OLIMEX ESP32-PoE
wt32_eth01 Wireless-Tag WT32-ETH01 Ethernet Module
lilygo_eth_lite_s3 T-ETH-Lite ESP32 S3
m5stack-atom     M5Stack-ATOM
m5stack-atoms3     M5Stack AtomS3

Compatible means a firmware for this board can at least be built and flashed. Not Compatible means that the firmware cannot be built for this board or that the board has been unsuccessfully tested.

Tested means someone has verified that firmware is working or partially working on this board. No Tested means that we do not have the ability to test, but the board is at least compatible.

Compatible Hardware

Here is the non exhaustive hardware that is compatible with YaS☀️lR firmware. Links are provided for reference only, you can find them on other websites.

YaS☀️lR supports many builds and routing algorithms. To know what you need to buy, please read the Wiring section below to chose the right hardware depending on which router you want to build.

ESP32 Boards (*) Micro-controllers
ESP32 NodeMCU Dev Kit C, Dev Kit C, Dev Kit C v4, Dev Kit C v4
ESP32-S3 N8R2/N16R8, N16R8
LILYGO T-ETH-Lite ESP32-S3 (Ethernet)
WT32-ETH01 v1.4 (Ethernet)
WiFi Pigtail Antenna for ESP32 boards supporting external WiFi antenna
Dimmers (*) Dimmers are required and must be selected carefully depending on the load and the routing algorithms
Robodyn AC Dimmer 24A/600V Includes ZCD, supports Phase Control and Burst mode
Robodyn AC Dimmer 40A/800V Includes ZCD, supports Phase Control and Burst mode
Triac BTA40-800B RD91 here or here if you want / need to replace the Triac inside your Robodyn
LCTC Random Solid State Relay (SSR) that can be controlled by a 3.3V DC signal, (Other LCTC vendor link). Supports Phase Control and Burst mode, See How to choose your SSR ? below
Zero-Cross Solid State Relay (SSR) that can be controlled by a 3.3V DC signal Supports Burst mode, See How to choose your SSR ? below
Zero-Cross Detection (*) ZCD circuits are used to detect when the AC voltage crosses the 0V. It is either included in dimmers like Robodyn, or need to be added as an external device. This is required for a router to properly work and control the output power.
Very good ZCD module for DIN Rail from Daniel S. (used in conjunction with a Random SSR)
Power and Energy Monitoring (*) List of devices used to measure Grid Power and routed power. Measuring the Grid Power is required.
JSY-MK-194T with 1 fixed tore and 1 remote clamp Used to measure the grid power and total routed power
JSY-MK-194T with 2 remote clamps Used to measure the grid power and total routed power
Peacefair PZEM-004T V3 100A Openable (with clamp) official, with connector, USB-TTL Cable. Can be used to measure each output individually and more precisely. Several PZEM-004T can be connected to the same Serial port.
Shelly EM (or any other alternative sending data to MQTT)
Temperature Sensors Used to activate some router features such as auto-bypass and monitor the heating of the router box
DS18B20 Temperature Sensor + Adapter (easier to use to install in the water tank - take a long cable)
Bypass and External Relay Used to activate some router features such as controlling other loads, and also efficiently bypass the dimmers when forcing a planned heating
1-Channel 5V DC / 30A Electromagnetic Relay on DIN Rail Support: here, here, here, here
2-Channel 5V DC / 30A Dual Electromagnetic Relays on DIN Rail Support: here, here, here, here, here
Solid State Relay (See How to choose your SSR ? below)
Screens Optionally add a screen
SSD1306 OLED Display 4 pins 128x64 I2C
SH1106 OLED Display 4 pins 128x64 I2C
SSD1307 OLED Display 4 pins 128x64 I2C
Manual Control and Status Optionally add LEDs, Push button
Push Buttons Amazon (16mm) AliExpress (12mm) for restart, manual bypass, reset
Traffic lights Lights module for system status AZ-Delivery, AliExpress
Heat Dissipation  
Heat Sink for Random SSR and Triac (there are many more types available: take a big heat sink placed vertically)
Heat Sink for SSR (there are many more types available: take a big heat sink placed vertically)
Raspberry Fans (for Robodyn AC dimmer)
Mounting Accessories Some useful accessories to help mount components together
Electric Box
Extension boards (pay attention to the distance between header, there are different models. This one fits the ESP32 NodeMCU above)
DIN Rail Mount for PCB 72mm x 20mm for the ZCD module above to mount on DIN Rail. Alternative link
DIN Rail Mount for ESP32 NodeMCU Dev Kit C
Distribution Module / More choice
DIN Rail Clips for SSR
AC-DC 5V 2.4A DIN Adapter HDR-15-5 Amazon, AliExpress. Can be used to power the ESP when installed in an electric box on DIN rail
3D Print enclosure for JSY-MK-194T. You can screw it on an SSR DIN Rail to place your JSY on a DIN Rail in this enclosure.
Wires Some useful accessories to help mount components together
Dupont Cable Kit
100 ohms 0.1uF RC Snubber (for Robodyn AC dimmer and Random SSR: can be placed at dimmer output)

(*) Required items


  1. It is possible to switch the TRIAC of an original Robodyn AC Dimmer with a higher one, for example a BTA40-800B BOITIER RD-91
    Ref: Triacs gradateurs pour routeur photovoltaïque.

  2. The heat sink must be chosen according to the SSR / Triac. Here is a good video about the theory: Calcul du dissipateur pour le triac d’un routeur (from Pierre)

  3. Make sure to improve the Robodyn wiring/soldering

How to choose your SSR ?

Solid State Relays can be used:

Things to consider:

Other SSR:

Examples of Shopping Lists

For each example below, you can add:

Example 1: For loads up to 2000 W

Example 2: For loads up to 2000 W

Example 3: For loads up to 3000 W

Example 4: For any load - SSR based

Default GPIO pinout per board

The hardware and GPIO pinout are heavily inspired by Routeur solaire PV monophasé Le Profes’Solaire from Anthony. Please read all the information there first. He did a very great job with some videos explaining the wiring.

Most of the features can be enabled or disabled through the app and the GPIO pinout can be changed also trough the app.

Here are below the default GPIO pinout for each board.

Tested boards:

FEATURE ESP32 NodeMCU-32S esp32s3 wt32_eth01 T-ETH-Lite
Display CLOCK (CLK) 22 22 9 32 40
Display DATA (SDA) 21 21 8 33 41
JSY-MK-194T RX (Serial TX) 17 17 17 17 17
JSY-MK-194T TX (Serial RX) 16 16 16 5 18
Light Feedback (Green) 0 0 0 -1 38
Light Feedback (Red) 15 15 15 -1 46
Light Feedback (Yellow) 2 2 2 -1 21
OUTPUT #1 Bypass Relay 32 32 40 12 20
OUTPUT #1 Dimmer (Robodyn or SSR) 25 25 37 2 19
OUTPUT #1 Temperature Sensor 18 18 18 15 3
OUTPUT #2 Bypass Relay 33 33 33 -1 15
OUTPUT #2 Dimmer (Robodyn or SSR) 26 26 36 -1 7
OUTPUT #2 Temperature Sensor 5 5 5 -1 16
Push Button (restart) EN EN EN EN EN
RELAY #1 13 13 13 14 5
RELAY #2 12 12 12 -1 6
System Temperature Sensor 4 4 4 4 4
ZCD (Robodyn or ZCD Sync) 35 35 35 35 8
PZEM-004T v3 RX (Serial TX) 27 27 11 -1 -1
PZEM-004T v3 TX (Serial RX) 14 14 14 -1 -1

Potential compatible boards, but not tested yet:

FEATURE esp32-poe ESP32-C3-DevKitC-02 lolin32_lite lolin_s2_mini m5stack-atom m5stack-atoms3
Display CLOCK (CLK) 16 6 22 9 -1 -1
Display DATA (SDA) 13 7 19 8 -1 -1
JSY-MK-194T RX (Serial TX) 33 20 17 39 -1 -1
JSY-MK-194T TX (Serial RX) 35 21 16 37 -1 -1
Light Feedback (Green) -1 -1 0 3 -1 -1
Light Feedback (Red) -1 -1 15 6 -1 -1
Light Feedback (Yellow) -1 -1 2 2 -1 -1
OUTPUT #1 Bypass Relay 4 2 32 21 -1 -1
OUTPUT #1 Dimmer (Robodyn or SSR) 2 1 25 10 -1 -1
OUTPUT #1 Temperature Sensor 5 0 18 18 -1 -1
OUTPUT #2 Bypass Relay -1 9 33 33 -1 -1
OUTPUT #2 Dimmer (Robodyn or SSR) -1 8 26 11 -1 -1
OUTPUT #2 Temperature Sensor -1 5 5 5 -1 -1
Push Button (restart) EN EN EN EN EN EN
RELAY #1 14 -1 13 13 -1 -1
RELAY #2 15 -1 12 12 -1 -1
System Temperature Sensor 0 4 4 4 -1 -1
ZCD (Robodyn or ZCD Sync) 36 3 35 35 -1 -1
PZEM-004T v3 RX (Serial TX) -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
PZEM-004T v3 TX (Serial RX) -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

Minimal requirements:

The website display the pinout configured, the pinout layout that is live at runtime and also displays some potential issues like duplicate pins or wrong pin configuration.

Pictures of some routers