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How to build your router

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THIS PROJECT REQUIRES ELECTRICITY KNOWLEDGE AND WIRING FOR 230V. DO NOT CONSIDER THIS PROJECT IF YOU HAVE ANY DOUBT OR DON’T KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING. YOU UNDERSTAND THAT ROUTING POWER IS DONE BY MODIFYING THE GRID ALTERNATIVE CURRENT (AC) AND CAN CAUSE DAMAGES. BY USING THIS PROJECT AND FOLLOWING ITS INSTRUCTIONS, YOU ACCEPT THAT I CANNOT BE HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGES, INJURIES, OR LOSSES CAUSED OR RELATED TO THE USE OF THIS PROJECT.


Build Types

YaS☀️lR supports many builds and routing algorithms. Before building your router, you need to decide which type of technology you want to use to dim the voltage (Burst Mode or Phase Control). Here is a compatibility matrix for the main pieces of hardware depending on the router type you want to build.

Once you have picked up your build type, you can look at the Wiring Schema to know how to wire it and see the Hardware Compatibility section to know what you need to buy.

Hardware Phase Control (*3) Burst Mode Nominal Load (*1) Wiring Schemas
Robodyn 24A
(alone)
< 2000 W // TODO: add wiring schema
Robodyn 40A
(alone)
< 3000 W // TODO: add wiring schema
Random SSR
+ ZCD Circuit
1/3 of SSR rated load (*2) // TODO: add wiring schema
Zero-Cross SSR
+ ZCD Circuit
1/3 of SSR rated load (*2) // TODO: add wiring schema

Hint: Remember that according to regulations about harmonic, the maximum power should be at around 750W. More than that, you are supposed to put in place filtering systems to reduce the harmonics. So if you want to build a router that is compliant with the regulations, any build type will be fine as long as you pay attention to the generated harmonic level.

Bypass: Whatever the solution you pick, you can always add an optional bypass relay to send the full power to the load instead of dimming it. If no bypass relay is added, the dimmer will be used instead at 100% when pressing the bypass.

Dimmers: Solid State Relay or Robodyn ?

Here are some pros and cons of each phase control system:

Robodyn (TRIAC):

Solid State Relays:

Heat Sink:

In any case, do not forget to correctly dissipate the heat of your Triac / SSR using an appropriate heat sink. Robodyn heat sink is not enough and require some tweaking (like adding a flan or de-soldering the triac and heat sink and put teh triac on a bigger heat sink).

Relays: Solid State Relay or Electromagnetic Relay ?

The choice is yours. The constraint is that they have to be controllable through a 3.3V DC signal. It is easier to find SSR supporting high loads that can be controlled by a 3.3V DC signal than electromagnetic relays. Also, SSR with a DIN Rail clip are easy to install. On the other hand, SSR can be more affected by harmonics than electromagnetic relays and they are more expensive.

Here are some links where to fine pros and cons of each relay type:

Compatible ESP32 Boards

The full list of ESP32 boards can be found here. Here are the boards we know are compatible and those we have tested.

Board Compatible Ethernet Tested Typical Name
esp32 ESP32 NodeMCU Dev Kit C
esp32s ESP32S NodeMCU Dev Kit C
esp32c3 Espressif ESP32-C3-DevKitC-02
esp32s3 Espressif ESP32-S3-DevKitC-1-N8 (8 MB QD, No PSRAM)
d1_mini32   WEMOS D1 MINI ESP32
lolin32_lite WEMOS LOLIN32 Lite
lolin_c3_mini   WEMOS LOLIN C3 Mini
lolin_s2_mini WEMOS LOLIN S2 Mini
esp32_poe OLIMEX ESP32-PoE
wt32_eth01 Wireless-Tag WT32-ETH01 Ethernet Module
lilygo_eth_lite_s3 T-ETH-Lite ESP32 S3
m5stack-atom M5Stack-ATOM
m5stack-atoms3 M5Stack AtomS3

Compatible means a firmware for this board can at least be be built and flashed. Not Compatible means that the firmware cannot be built for this board or that the board has been unsuccessfully tested.

Tested means someone has verified that firmware is working or partially working on this board. No Tested means that we do not have the ability to test, but the board is at least compatible.

🚧 means In Progress

Default pinout per board

The hardware and pinout are heavily inspired by Routeur solaire PV monophasé Le Profes’Solaire from Anthony. Please read all the information there first. He did a very great job with some videos explaining the wiring.

Most of the features can be enabled or disabled through the app and the pinout can be changed also trough the app.

Tested boards:

FEATURE ESP32 NodeMCU-32S esp32s3 wt32_eth01 T-ETH-Lite
Display CLOCK (CLK) 22 22 38 -1 40
Display DATA (SDA) 21 21 21 -1 41
JSY-MK-194T RX (Serial TX) 17 17 17 17 17
JSY-MK-194T TX (Serial RX) 16 16 16 5 18
Light Feedback (Green) 0 0 0 -1 38
Light Feedback (Red) 15 15 15 -1 46
Light Feedback (Yellow) 2 2 2 -1 21
OUTPUT #1 Bypass Relay 32 32 40 12 20
OUTPUT #1 Dimmer (Robodyn or SSR) 25 25 37 2 19
OUTPUT #1 Temperature Sensor 18 18 18 15 3
OUTPUT #2 Bypass Relay 33 33 33 -1 15
OUTPUT #2 Dimmer (Robodyn or SSR) 26 26 36 -1 7
OUTPUT #2 Temperature Sensor 5 5 5 -1 16
Passive Buzzer 19 19 8 -1 2
Push Button (restart and factory reset) 23 23 39 -1 1
RELAY #1 13 13 13 14 5
RELAY #2 12 12 12 -1 6
System Temperature Sensor 4 4 4 4 4
ZCD (Robodyn or ZCD Sync) 35 35 35 35 8
PZEM-004T v3 RX (Serial TX) 27 27 11 -1 -1
PZEM-004T v3 TX (Serial RX) 14 14 14 -1 -1

Compatible boards, but not tested yet:

FEATURE esp32-poe ESP32-C3-DevKitC-02 lolin32_lite lolin_s2_mini m5stack-atom m5stack-atoms3
Display CLOCK (CLK) 16 6 22 9 -1 -1
Display DATA (SDA) 13 7 19 8 -1 -1
JSY-MK-194T RX (Serial TX) 33 20 17 39 -1 -1
JSY-MK-194T TX (Serial RX) 35 21 16 37 -1 -1
Light Feedback (Green) -1 -1 0 3 -1 -1
Light Feedback (Red) -1 -1 15 6 -1 -1
Light Feedback (Yellow) -1 -1 2 2 -1 -1
OUTPUT #1 Bypass Relay 4 2 32 21 -1 -1
OUTPUT #1 Dimmer (Robodyn or SSR) 2 1 25 10 -1 -1
OUTPUT #1 Temperature Sensor 5 0 18 18 -1 -1
OUTPUT #2 Bypass Relay -1 9 33 33 -1 -1
OUTPUT #2 Dimmer (Robodyn or SSR) -1 8 26 11 -1 -1
OUTPUT #2 Temperature Sensor -1 5 5 5 -1 -1
Passive Buzzer -1 18 14 14 -1 -1
Push Button (restart and factory reset) -1 10 23 7 -1 -1
RELAY #1 14 20 13 13 -1 -1
RELAY #2 15 21 12 12 -1 -1
System Temperature Sensor 0 4 4 4 -1 -1
ZCD (Robodyn or ZCD Sync) 36 3 35 35 -1 -1
PZEM-004T v3 RX (Serial TX) -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
PZEM-004T v3 TX (Serial RX) -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

-1 means not mapped (probably because the board does not have enough pins)

Minimal requirements:

The website display the pinout configured, the pinout layout that is live at runtime and also displays some potential issues like duplicate pins or wrong pin configuration.

Compatible Hardware

Here is the non exhaustive hardware that is compatible with YaS☀️lR firmware. Links are provided for reference only, you can find them on other websites.

YaS☀️lR supports many builds and routing algorithms. To know what you need to buy, please read the Wiring section below to chose the right hardware depending on which router you want to build.

ESP32 Boards (*) Micro-controllers
ESP32 NodeMCU (Recommended and extensively tested)
ESP32S NodeMCU
ESP32-S3
LILYGO T-ETH-Lite ESP32-S3 (Ethernet)
WT32-ETH01 v1.4 ou plus (Ethernet)
Zero-Cross Detection (*) ZDC circuits are used to detect when the AC voltage crosses the 0V. It is either included in dimmers like Robodyn, or need to be added as an external device. This is required for a router to properly work and control the output power.
Robodyn AC Dimmer 24A/600V (ZCD + Phase Control)
Robodyn AC Dimmer 40A/800V (ZCD + Phase Control)
Very good ZDC module for DIN Rail (used in conjunction with a Random SSR)
Dimmers (*) Dimmers are required and must be selected carefully depending on the load and the routing algorithms
Robodyn AC Dimmer 24A/600V Includes ZCD, supports Phase Control and Burst mode
Robodyn AC Dimmer 40A/800V Includes ZCD, supports Phase Control and Burst mode
Random Solid State Relay (SSR) that can be controlled by a 3.3V DC signal Supports Phase Control and Burst mode, See How to choose your SSR ? below
Zero-Cross Solid State Relay (SSR) that can be controlled by a 3.3V DC signal Supports Burst mode, See How to choose your SSR ? below
Power and Energy Monitoring (*) List of devices used to measure Grid Power and routed power. Measuring the Grid Power is required.
JSY-MK-194T with 1 fixed tore and 1 remote clamp Used to measure the grid power and total routed power
JSY-MK-194T with 2 remote clamps Used to measure the grid power and total routed power
PZEM-004T V3 Can be used to measure each output individually and more precisely. Several PZEM-004T can be connected to the same Serial port.
Shelly EM (or any other alternative sending data to MQTT)
Temperature Sensors Used to activate some router features such as auto-bypass and monitor the heating of the router box
DS18B20 Temperature Sensor + Adapter (easier to use to install in the water tank - take a long cable)
Bypass and External Relay Used to activate some router features such as controlling other loads, and also efficiently bypass the dimmers when forcing a planned heating
Electromagnetic Relay
Dual Electromagnetic Relays
Solid State Relay (See How to choose your SSR ? below)
Screens Optionally add a screen
SSD1306 OLED Display 4 pins 128x64 I2C
SH1106 OLED Display 4 pins 128x64 I2C
SSD1307 OLED Display 4 pins 128x64 I2C
Manual Control and Status Optionally add LEDs, push button, buzzer
16mm Press Button (for restart, manual bypass, reset)
Traffic lights Lights module (for system status)
Passive Piezo Buzzer (for alerts)
Mounting and Wiring Accessories Some useful accessories to help mount components together
Extension boards (pay attention to the distance between header, there are different models. This one fits the ESP32 NodeMCU above)
AC-DC 5V 2.4A DIN Adapter HDR-15-5 (can be used to power the ESP when installed in an electric box on DIN rail)
100 ohms 0.1uF RC Snubber (for Robodyn AC dimmer and Random SSR)
Heat Sink for Random SSR and Triac
Heat Sink for SSR
DIN Rail Clips for SSR
Raspberry Fans (for Robodyn AC dimmer)
Dupont wire cables

(*) Required items

IMPORTANT NOTES:

It is possible to switch the TRIAC of an original Robodyn AC Dimmer with a higher one, for example a BTA40-800B BOITIER RD-91
Ref: Triacs gradateurs pour routeur photovoltaïque.

The heat sink must be chosen according to the SSR / Triac. Here is a good video about the theory: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_zAx1Q2IvJ8

How to choose your SSR ?

Solid State Relays can be used:

Things to consider:

Other SSR:

Build Examples

TO BE COMPLETED

This is the R&D box used to test the firmware with different hardware